Monthly Archives: March 2014

The Gospel According to Mark: Part II

Mark

In my last post on the Gospel according to Mark I showed a structure to Mark 2.1-3.6. On this post I hope to show the connection between Mark 1 and 2, along with what the 5-tier structure means, why it’s important, and why we should care. What do we do with it?

Mark 1

Mark has written 2.1-3.6 in such the same way. Mark 1.1-3 brings together a collection of verses from Ex. 23.20Mal. 3.1; and Isa. 40.3. (v2 in some translations say “As it is written in Isaiah” rather than “the Prophets.” This isn’t a mistake on Mark’s part. Of the three OT references, the focus is on the Isaiah quotation). Read the surrounding contexts of the 3 OT references, but essentially Malachi shows God (Yahweh) as the one who is going to come like a refiner’s fire and purge the temple of its uncleanness.

Yahweh’s messenger is John the Baptist who will prepare the way for the Lord, Jesus, who is Mark’s main focus. John prepares that way, and who comes? Not Yahweh, but Jesus. In fact, looking through Mark, Jesus’s actions and words are that of which only Yahweh can do and say. (More on that in another post).

Jesus begins his ministry after John the Baptist (the old way; Mk. 2.21) is put in prison. Now the ‘new wine’ (Jesus; 2.22) comes onto the scene. He calls disciples, and begins to cleanse Israel. He casts out unclean spirits (demons; Mk. 1.27Isa. 19.1), heals many (Mk. 1.29-34), Preaches in Galilee (1.35-39), and cleanses a leper (1.40-45). And through this becomes hugely popular.

Mark 2 

Here’s where this chiasm comes into play. Mark 2 brings us to sudden conflict where the scribes and Pharisees plan to stop this  unmerited popularity. This was inserted into my last post, but I’ve added it again to remind you of Mark’s structure.

2.1-3.6 is divided up into 5 sections*:

Healing [2.1-12]
        B Eating [2.13-17]
               C Fasting and Piety [2.18-22]
        B` Eating [2.23-28]
A` Healing [3.1-6]

But not only is there a mirror image, but with each step the conflict grow more tense and abrupt.
*This chiasm comes from the IVP’s Dictionary of Biblical Imagery.

The Controversy Rises

A  Anger is mental [2.1-12]
   B  Anger directed toward disciples [2.13-17]
      C  Anger directed at disciples [2.18-22]
          D  Anger is directed at JC [2.23-28]
              E  Anger is mental, now including a plot to kill Jesus [3.1-6]

The Terrible Two’s

In Mark 1, Jesus, the one who was to come, enters in on the scene presenting the “second exodus” and what God’s kingdom would look like by performing miracles of healing and cleansing (and soon forgiveness). Mark 2, Jesus’ popularity is now contested. His popularity with the religious crowd is zero to none. We see the conflict with the religious elite start early in Mark’s gospel.

Following the chiasm of 2.1-3.6

A  Healing [2.1-12]

Jesus forgives and heals a paralyzed man. Forgiveness is something that only God can do, so the scribes mentally accuse Him of blasphemy. Yet, so that they may know [8.11-12] He was the Son of Man who “has” authority to forgive sins, He then heals the man. And the people glorify God.

B  Eating [2.13-17]

Jesus calls a filthy tax collector who accepts and holds a dinner party where all feel welcome [reclined; 2.15]. The Pharisees verbally express their disapproval to the disciples, where Jesus answers telling them He came [1.38; 4.21; 10.45] to call sinners. Mark 1.14-15 shows us what Jesus was calling them to “repent, and believe in the gospel, for the kingdom of God is at hand.” 

Jesus, the great physician, came to call sinners, the sick, and not the “self-” righteous, to the gospel.

C  Fasting and Piety [2.18-22]

Jesus is bringing in the new era. While John the Baptist and his disciples fasted in mourning over the sins of the people and in anticipation of God’s kingdom, and while the Pharisees (and their admirers) fasted for religious reasons, Jesus disciples did not fast. What’s the deal, Jesus? The disciples had the bridegroom [Yahweh: Hos. 2.16, 19-20; Jer. 5.7; Jesus: 2 Cor. 11.2] with them giving way to, not mourning, but celebration. Jesus doesn’t mix with the old traditions of Judaism. The unshrunk cloth will tear the old garment, and the new wine will burst the old wine skins.

2.19 is the first allusion to Jesus’ death. He is the bridegroom who will be taken away. We see a glimpse of how this will play out in the last section.

B’  Eating [2.23-28]

The Pharisees criticize Jesus as a Teacher of the Torah by asking Him why His disciples are breaking the law on the Sabbath. Yahweh was the Lord of the Sabbath because He instituted the Sabbath [Gen. 2.3] and gave the Law in Exodus [20.8]. Yet here Jesus says that, as the Son of Man, He was Lord of the Sabbath. The followers of Jesus live in a constant Sabbath rest insofar as they live in the kingdom” (L.D. Hurst, Jesus and the Gospels Dictionary; Ethics of Jesus).

“Certainly the Jesus of Mark, who has authority to exercise the divine prerogative of forgiving sins (2:10), whose coming changes fasting to feasting (2:19), who came to seek and save the lost (10:45), could think this way” (Stein, Mark, p. 150).

A’  Healing [3.1-6]

??? Where is this? I want to elaborate on this one a bit more, so I’ll save it until next time. 

Breaking Point

Those who ought to know who Jesus is, the ones who should be welcoming Him into their presence, are the same ones who are criticizing Him because of the hardness of their hearts [2.73.5]. Jesus is the ‘new wine’, but new wine can not be placed in old wine skins. Jesus is bringing in a new way, ushering in a new era, better than what the Law could give [Heb. 7.18-22]. He does what God does by forgiving sins, perceiving hearts, and having authority over the Sabbath and the Torah. But we’ll see in the next section that the Pharisees reach a breaking point where they will plot out a need to put Jesus to death, the time surrounding when the bridegroom will be taken away.

Upcoming Posts

In my next post I’ll talk about the final scene and what Jesus did to really grind the Pharisees’ gears. I’ll include a look at how Mark presents Jesus to be closely tied with Yahweh.

Advertisements

2 Comments

Filed under Mark

The Gospel According to Mark

Mark

Though I’ve delayed putting this up (because I thought this would be brief), I’ve decided to put up a little bit of Mark that I’ve gathered over the past few weeks. As I’ve mentioned before, I’ve been able to co-teach the gospel according to Mark here at the Calvary Chapel Bible College in York, UK. It’s been a terrific experience for me, and I hope that I continue to have the chance to continue in teaching. 

The Gospel of Mark has been overlooked to often in favor of the other three Gospels (two of which are the Synoptic gospels – Matthew and Luke) which are much longer than Mark. Even throughout Church history it took some time for a “commentary” to come out on Mark, and it was a blip on the radar in an ocean of glaciers of any other biblical book to read/study/teach.

Action-Packed

Though I’ve heard Mark is “action-packed” it was hard for me to believe, at least, until I actually started studying it. Jesus is always on the move, is always doing something grand, is always confounding the Pharisees, is always saying more about Himself than the scribes would like to admit, etc. The first class I taught was on Mark 2.13-3.6, which is actually part of a bigger section starting with 2.1 [2.1-3.6]. Essentially, this ‘bigger’ section can be divided up into 5 pieces called a chiasmus [chiastic structure].

A What-mus?

Before going into Mark, here’s what a chiasm(us) is (essentially). A technical definition of a chiasm = the figure of speech in which two or more clauses are related to each other through a reversal of structures in order to make a larger point; that is, the clauses display inverted parallelism. (It’s like the shape of an X split down the middle).

Phrases following this pattern include:

  • “I mean what I say” and “I say what I mean.” 
  • “Oh, you haven’t, haven’t you?”
  • Mankind must put an end to war or war will put an end to mankind.” 
  • “A failure to plan is a plan to fail.”
  • “When the going gets tough, the tough get going!”

Suzy Q’s Visual Example

Suzy Q Goes to the Zoo and Sees

A  Lions
    B  Tigers
              C  Bears
                      D  Oh my! [High Point/Focus; Suzy Q runs back & sees…]
              C’  Bears

       B’  Tigers
A’  Lions

After Seeing too Much, Suzy Q Goes Back Home

So there’s a paralleled mirror [or ‘reversed’] image used to show a particular focus to the story.

Mark 2 

Here’s where this chiasm comes into play. After showing Jesus to be wildly popular in Mark 1Mark 2 brings us to sudden conflict where the scribes and Pharisees plan to stop this unmerited popularity.

2.1-3.6 Is divide up into 5 sections:

A  Healing (2.1-12)
        B  Eating (2.13-17)
               C  Fasting and Piety (2.18-22)
        B’  Eating (2.23-28)
A’  Healing (3.1-6)

But not only is there a mirror image, but with each step the conflict grow more tense and terse.

The Controversy Rises

A  Anger is mental (2.1-12)
    B  Anger directed toward disciples (2.13-17)
        C  Anger directed at disciples (2.18-22)
             D  Anger is premeditated and directed at JC (2.23-28)
                   E  Anger is mental, but now includes a plot to kill JC (3.1-6)

Upcoming Posts

Why does this structure matter? In my next post will develop the relationship of Mark 1 to Mark 2, and how Jesus popularity is contested by the religious elite early on in Mark’s Gospel, and how this 5-tier structure actually fleshes itself out in Mark 2.

Leave a comment

Filed under Mark